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Taxonomy and Systematics


  • Metamorphosis
  • The skin
  • Anti-predator behaviour
  • Colours, patterns and colour morphs
  • Thermoregulation
  • Diet
  • Reproduction
  • Natural habitats of tailed amphibians

Keeping salamanders and newts

  • Keeping in an aquarium
  • Keeping in a terrarium
  • What to look out for when making a purchase
  • Environmental conditions
  • Population density
  • Handling
  • The right diet



  • Triggers for mating
  • Deposition and development of eggs
  • Development of the larvae
  • Metamorphosis
  • Raising freshly metamorphosed tailed amphibians
  • The right diet for terrestrial juveniles

Salamanders, laws and ethics

  • Amphibian decline and keeping salamanders – a contradiction?
  • Laws governing the keeping of newts and salamanders
  • Individual identification and marking

Diseases of salamanders and newts

  • How to recognise a sick tailed amphibian

Most common diseases

Medical care for diseased tailed amphibians

Species accounts of tailed amphibians (Urodela)

  • Salamanders and newts, Salamandridae
  • Calotriton asper (Pyrenean Newt)
  • Cynops cyanurus (Blue-tailed Fire-bellied Newt)
  • Cynops ensicauda (Sword-tailed Newt)
  • Cynops orientalis (Chinese Fire-bellied Newt)
  • Cynops pyrrhogaster (Japanese Fire-bellied Newt)
  • Euproctus platycephalus (Sardinian Newt)
  • Laotriton laoensis (Laos Warty Newt)
  • Lissotriton italicus (Italian Newt)
  • Lissotriton vulgaris (Smooth Newt)
  • Lyciasalamandra billae (Bille’s Salamander)
  • Mertensiella caucasica (Caucasian Salamander)
  • crocatus (Lake Urmia Newt)
  • Neurergus kaiseri (Luristan Newt)
  • Neurergus strauchii (Anatolia Newt)
  • Notophthalmus viridescens (Red-spotted Newt)
  • Ommatotriton ophryticus (Northern Banded Newt)
  • Ommatotriton vittatus (Southern Banded Newt)
  • Pachytriton sp. (Paddle-tailed Newt)
  • Paramesotriton chinensis (Chinese Warty Newt)
  • Pleurodeles waltl (Ribbed newt)
  • Salamandra atra, Salamandra lanzai (Alpine Salamanders)
  • Salamandra salamandra, Salamandra algira, Salamandra corsica, Salamandra infraimmaculata (Fire Salamanders)
  • Salamandrina perspicillata, Salamandrina terdigitata (Spectacled Salamanders)
  • Taricha granulosa (Rough-skinned Newt)
  • Triturus carnifex (Italian Crested Newt)
  • Triturus marmoratus (Northern Marbled Newt)
  • Tylototriton kweichowensis (Guizhou Knobby Newt)
  • Tylototriton shanjing (Yunnan Newt, Mandarin Salamander)
  • Tylototriton verrucosus (Himalayan Salamander, Crocodile Newt)
  • Tylototriton wenxianensis (Wenxian Knobby Newt))

Mole salamanders, Ambystomatidae

  • Ambystoma laterale (Blue-spotted Salamander)
  • Ambystoma macrodactylum (Long-toed Salamander)
  • Ambystoma maculatum (Spotted Salamander)
  • Ambystoma mavortium (Barred Tiger Salamander)
  • Ambystoma mexicanum (Axolotl)
  • Ambystoma opacum (Marbled Salamander)
  • Lungless salamanders, Plethodontidae
  • Aneides lugubris (Arboreal Salamander)
  • Bolitoglossa dofleini (Giant Palm Salamander, Doflein’s Salamander)
  • Bolitoglossa mexicana (Mexican Mushroomtongue Salamander)
  • Desmognathus fuscus (Northern Dusky Salamander)
  • Eurycea guttolineata (Three-lined Salamander)
  • Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Spring Salamander)
  • Hemidactylium scutatum (Four-toed Salamander)
  • Plethodon cinereus (Red-backed Salamander)
  • Pseudoeurycea cephalica (Chunky False Brook Salamander)
  • Pseudotriton ruber (Red Salamander)
  • Speleomantes imperialis (Odourous Cave Salamander)

Asiatic salamanders, Hynobiidae

  • Hynobius boulengeri (Odaigahara Salamander)
  • Hynobius dunni (Oita or Dunn’s Salamander)
  • Hynobius okiensis (Oki Salamander)
  • Hynobius quelpaertensis (Jeju or Cheju Salamander)
  • Hynobius retardatus (Hokkaido Salamander, Ezo Salamander)
  • Pachyhynobius shangchengensis (Shangcheng Stout Salamander)
  • Paradactylodon mustersi (Afghanistan Mountain Salamander)

Mudpuppies and Olms, Proteidae

  • Necturus maculosus (Mudpuppy)
  • Proteus anguinus (Olm)

Sirens, Sirenidae

  • Pseudobranchus axanthus (Southern Dwarf Siren)

Giant salamanders, Cryptobranchidae

  • Andrias davidianus (Chinese Giant Salamander)

Amphiumas or Congo eels, Amphiumidae

  • Amphiuma tridactylum (Three-toed Amphiuma)

Species accounts of caecilians (Gymnophiona)

  • Taylor‘s caecilians, Dermophiidae
  • Geotrypetes seraphini (Gaboon Caecilian)

Asian tailed caecilians, Ichthyophiidae

  • Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Koh Tao Caecilian)

Aquatic caecilians or rubber eels, Typhlonectidae

  • Typhlonectes natans (Rio Cauca Caecilian, Rubber Eel)

Further information

References and further reading